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Rosalind Franklin the Scientist. Clues to Healthier Aging in Cellular Senescence. Precoated Plates. The solute drag creep rate is:. So it could be seen from the equation above, m is 3 for solute drag creep.
Solute drag creep shows a special phenomenon, which is called the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect. When the applied stress becomes sufficiently large, the dislocations will break away from the solute atoms since dislocation velocity increases with the stress.
After breakaway, the stress decreases and the dislocation velocity also decreases, which allows the solute atoms to approach and reach the previously departed dislocations again, leading to a stress increase. The process repeats itself when the next local stress maximum is obtained. So repetitive local stress maxima and minima could be detected during solute drag creep.
Dislocation climb-glide creep is observed in materials at high temperature. The initial creep rate is larger than the steady-state creep rate. Climb-glide creep could be illustrated as follows: when the applied stress is not enough for a moving dislocation to overcome the obstacle on its way via dislocation Creep gene alone, the dislocation could climb to a parallel slip plane by diffusional processes, and the dislocation can glide on the new plane.
This process repeats itself each Creep gene when the dislocation encounters an obstacle. The creep rate could be written as:. The exponent m for dislocation Creep gene creep is 4. Harper—Dorn creep is a climb-controlled dislocation mechanism at low stresses that has been observed in aluminum, lead, and tin systems, in addition to nonmetal systems such as ceramics and ice.
It is characterized by two principal phenomena: a linear relationship between the steady-state strain rate and applied stress at a constant temperature, and an independent relationship between the steady-state strain rate and grain size for a provided temperature and applied stress.
However, Harper—Dorn creep is typically overwhelmed by other creep mechanisms in most situations, and is therefore not observed in most systems. The phenomenological equation which describes Harper—Dorn creep is:. The volumetric activation energy indicates that the rate of Harper—Dorn creep is controlled by vacancy diffusion to and from dislocations, resulting in climb-controlled dislocation motion. The density has been proposed to increase as dislocations move via cross-slip from one slip-plane to another, thereby increasing the dislocation length per unit volume.
Cross-slip can also result in jogs along the length of the dislocation, which, if large enough, can act as single-ended dislocation sources. At high temperatures, it is energetically favorable for voids to shrink in a material. The application of tensile stress opposes the reduction in energy gained by void shrinkage.
Thus, a certain magnitude of applied tensile stress is required to offset these shrinkage effects and cause void growth and creep fracture in materials at high temperature. This stress occurs at the sintering limit of the system. The stress tending to shrink voids that must be overcome is related to the surface energy and surface area-volume ratio of the voids. Below this critical stress, voids will tend to shrink rather than grow. Additional void shrinkage effects will also result from the application of a compressive stress.
For typical descriptions of creep, it is assumed that the applied tensile stress exceeds the sintering limit. Creep also explains one of several contributions to densification during metal powder sintering by hot pressing. A main aspect of densification is the shape change of the powder particles.
Since this change involves permanent deformation of crystalline solids, it can be considered a plastic deformation process and thus sintering can be described as a high temperature creep process.
This phenomenon is observed to be one of the main densification mechanisms in the final stages of sintering, during which the densification rate assuming gas-free pores can be explained by:  . A and n are from the following form of the general steady-state creep equation:. Creep can occur in polymers and metals which are considered viscoelastic materials. When a polymeric material is subjected to an abrupt force, the response can be modeled using the Kelvin—Voigt model.
In this model, the material is represented by a [Hooke's law Hookean] spring and a Newtonian dashpot in parallel. The creep strain is given by the following convolution integral:. When subjected to a step constant stress, viscoelastic materials experience a time-dependent increase in strain.
This phenomenon is known as viscoelastic creep. At a time t 0a viscoelastic material is loaded with a constant stress that is maintained for a sufficiently long time period. The material responds to the stress with a strain that increases until the material ultimately fails.
When the stress is maintained for a shorter time period, the material undergoes an initial strain until a time t 1 at which the stress is relieved, at which time the strain immediately decreases discontinuity then continues decreasing gradually to a residual strain.
Viscoelastic creep data can be presented in one of two ways. Total strain can be plotted as a function of time for a given temperature or temperatures. Below a critical value of applied stress, a material may exhibit linear viscoelasticity. Above this critical stress, the creep rate grows disproportionately faster, Creep gene. The second way of graphically presenting viscoelastic creep in a material Creep gene by plotting the creep modulus constant applied stress divided by total strain at a particular time as a function of time.
A family of curves describing strain Creep gene time response to various applied stress may be represented by a single viscoelastic creep modulus versus time curve if the applied stresses are below the material's critical stress value.
Additionally, the molecular weight of the polymer of interest is known to affect its creep behavior. The effect of increasing molecular weight tends to promote secondary bonding between polymer chains and thus make the polymer more creep resistant. Similarly, aromatic polymers are even more creep resistant due to the added stiffness from the rings.
Both molecular weight and aromatic rings add to polymers' thermal stability, increasing the creep resistance of a polymer. Both polymers and metals can creep. Polymers experience significant creep at temperatures above ca.
Polymers show creep basically in two different ways. Wood is considered as an orthotropic material, exhibiting different mechanical properties in three mutually perpendicular directions. Experiments show that the tangential direction in solid wood tend display a slightly higher creep compliance than in the radial direction. It has also been shown that there is a substantial difference in viscoelastic properties of wood depending on loading modality creep in compression or tension.
Studies has shown that certain Poisson's ratios gradually go from positive to negative values during the duration of the compression creep test, which does not occur in tension. The creep of concrete, which originates from the calcium silicate hydrates C-S-H in the hardened Portland cement paste which is the binder of mineral aggregatesis fundamentally different from the creep of metals as well as polymers.
Unlike the creep of metals, it occurs at all stress levels and, within the service stress range, is linearly dependent on the stress if the pore water content is constant. Unlike the creep of polymers and metals, it exhibits multi-months aging, caused by chemical hardening due to hydration which stiffens the microstructure, and multi-year aging, caused by long-term relaxation of self-equilibrated micro-stresses in the nano-porous microstructure of the C-S-H.
If concrete is fully dried it does not creep, though it is difficult to dry concrete fully without severe cracking.
Though mostly due to the reduced yield strength at higher temperatures, the collapse of the World Trade Center was due in part to creep from increased temperature. The creep rate of hot pressure-loaded components in a nuclear reactor at power can be a significant design constraint, since the creep rate is enhanced by the flux of energetic particles. Creep in epoxy anchor adhesive was blamed for the Big Dig tunnel ceiling collapse in Boston, Massachusetts that occurred in July The design of tungsten light bulb filaments attempts to reduce creep deformation.
Sagging of the filament coil between its supports increases with time due to the weight of the filament itself. If too much deformation occurs, the adjacent turns of the coil touch one another, causing an electrical short and local overheating, which quickly leads to failure of the filament. The coil geometry and supports are therefore designed to limit the stresses caused by the weight of the filament, and a special tungsten alloy with small amounts of oxygen trapped in the crystallite grain boundaries is used to slow the rate of Coble creep.
Creep can cause gradual cut-through of wire insulation, especially when stress is concentrated by pressing insulated wire against a sharp edge or corner. Special creep-resistant insulations such as Kynar polyvinylidene fluoride are used in wirewrap applications to resist cut-through due to the sharp corners of wire wrap terminals.
Teflon insulation is resistant to elevated temperatures and has other desirable properties, but is notoriously vulnerable to cold-flow cut-through failures caused by creep.
Hence, it is crucial for correct functionality to understand the creep deformation behavior of materials. Creep deformation is important not only in systems where high temperatures are endured such as nuclear power plants, jet engines and heat exchangers, but also in the design of many everyday objects.
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