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Majmurek, op. Pisarski, op. Aim, fire, reload, repeat! Kallmann, In Memoriam. W zasadzie Bruno Schultz. Schulz, Fleischfressende Pflanzen, Wittenberg Lutherstadt Jerzego Ficowskiego.

Witryna jerzyficowski. Portal jerzyficowski. Irena Chawrilska ur. Balbina Hoppe ur. Anna Jarmuszkiewicz ur. Problemy recepcji literackiej w literaturze polskiej po roku, obronionej na Wydziale Polonistyki UJ. Katarzyna Kaszorek ur. Pomaga w Pracowni Schulzowskiej. Ariko Kato ur. Walt Disney i film rysunkowy w przedwojennej Polsce Piotr Sitkiewicz ur.

Tymoteusz Skiba ur. Kurator ds. Aleksandra Paulina Skrzypczyk ur. Anna Szyjkowska-Piotrowska ur. Uwielbia Brunona Schulza. Szkice o literaturze polskiej i francuskiej XX wieku Zofia Ziemann ur. The author himself made an effort to become known outside the Polish language, however, only after his death artists, translators, critics, and researchers Album) him a world-famous writer. He became a property of everyone — with all its good and bad consequences.

Bruno Schulz and the German Expressionist Film. In fact, similarities go beyond the plot and can be discovered also in the expressionist manner of creating the presented world and characters, the mysterious atmosphere, and many important details discussed in the essay. If the answer is yes, one may use for that purpose such concepts as metaphor, analogy, logos, oxymoron, and metamorphosis. The concepts mentioned above are not labels: they describe elegant and impressive ways of escaping from reason, taken with its help.

All this can be etymologically motivated: the ancient Greek concept of logos refers to reason, speech, and discourse. Class of Every year, The Public Domain Review website publishes a photomontage of artists and writers whose works have just entered the public domain.

The class of also includes Bruno Schulz. The last article, by Colleen M. Critics noticed that the short stories by Bruno Schulz show many colors when the writer was still alive, and then such opinions has been frequently confirmed.

Yet, in spite of. Piotr Sitkiewicz Trombones of Opportunity. The book jacket of Cinnamon Shops has never been reproduced. Moreover, nobody has ever published the text that appeared on its flap. Probably not written by Schulz himself, it presents such features of his stories as the deformation of the described reality or the unusual plasticity of words.

How to write about the Quay Brothers, their films, drawings frozen in frames, the spaces formed in theatrical, ballet, and opera settings?

Should one explain, analyze, replace images with words? The essay does not provide answers to these questions, but reconstructs a certain course of events, their traces, and consequences. Since the author has known the Quay Brothers in person, she can search for phenomena hidden under the surface of the visible. She tells the reader about what she has learned from many conversations with the Brothers, enjoying an unusual symbiotic relationship with them, contributing to their films and a book.

Balbina Hoppe Mirror. Still, in his performance Mirror Lustroafter forty years he returned to words. Yet Mirror is not an adaptation of the story. It is not necessary to go to Drohobych to see it. The photographer follows a parallel path that is indeed a path of his own. Aleksandra Skrzypczyk Schulz in the Opera. The fate of two Polish operas inspired by Schulz varies considerably — there has been no stage premiere of Demiurgos yet, and Mannequins have won world fame.

As a result, apparently unrelated scenes contribute to a coherent dramatic narrative. Such a close relationship between the literary and the musical material calls for an analysis of relations of the language of literature and the asemantic idiom of music, which let the audience respond to the meanings imposed on music by fiction.

The music not only comments and illustrates, but also creates dramatic suspense. The Nishioka siblings are a team of Japanese comic book writers and artists. Recently, they have been working on comic books adapting literary texts, including those by.

Franz Kafka and Bruno Schulz. The Nishioka siblings quoted particular sentences from those stories, translated by Yukio Kudo. The essay presents their work to the Polish reader. Latin America has been rediscovering Schulz. Bruno Schulz is not particularly well known in Greece. Most likely, both texts were translated not from Polish, but from English. More translations of Schulz into Greek appeared in the late s, and since then many have been published.

The problems faced by the Greek translators of Schulz deserve a separate study. All of them refer to the past which is still important and significant for the audience. On the contrary, Foer has made a ruin in which the past shows the present as an index, a footnote. The abandoned, empty holes point at a loss and simultaneously make one remember that the Wailing Wall still brings to mind the Jerusalem Temple and its significance for Jews. What is the significance of Schulz for this experimental prose?

The RPG game. The textual paragraph game. The gamebook. The very names of these genres suggest their literary origin. Dick or gothic horror The Call of Cthulhu based on H. Antonii Majoragii Antiparadoxon sive suburbanarum questionum libri sex, in quibus M. Tulli Ciceronis omnia paradoxa refelluntur, Lugduni: apud Gryphium, See further Q. Although Cicero was frequently associated with the distinctively Roman blend of Stoicism, his texts were taken to provide support for various philosophical stances25, and even if a Stoic affiliation is predominant, it is not so without modification and reservations.

The sentiment that Stoic requirements imposed upon a man who may be truly called wise are entirely unrealistic and either wholly beyond the reach of a human being or satisfiable only by exceptional individuals, hence not suitable as rules for living for ordinary mortals, recurs throughout the Renaissance, from its dawn to the final period.

Salutati, in a letter written in to Francesco Zabarella27, having proposed to discuss whether philosophical remedies to grief and sorrow 24 For an extensive discussion of Nizolio and his works, see the introduction in: Mario Nizolio, De veris principiis et vera ratione philosophandi contra pseudophilosophos. Libri IV, ed. Contra Disquisitiones C. Schmitt, Cicero Scepticus. Vanderjagt, A. MacDonald, Z.

Veenstra, Leidenp. Braund and Ch. Gill, Cambridgep. Graver, Cicero on the emotions: Tusculan disputations 3 and 4, Chicagopassim; on philosophy as therapy in general: M. Nussbaum, Therapy of Desire. Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics, Princeton Salutati, Epistolario, ed. Novati, 4 vols, Romevol. III, p. Maior est auctoritas aristotelica Peripateticorumque moderatio, quam illa severitas, imo duricies et inaccessibilis ratio Stoicorum Objections of this kind accompany Stoic ethical doctrine from antiquity and persist despite a generally favourable attitude towards Stoicism as such, much buttressed by the authority of St.

Salutati, op. Salutati thus retreats from the position held in De laboribus Herculis, where the Stoic approach to virtue is claimed to be closest to its real nature cp. Ullmann, Turici ; see further R. Witt, Hercules at the Crossroads. Jerome, In Esaiam 4. A brief survey of Renaissance charges against the Stoics is provided in J. Schmitt, Q. Skinner, E. Kessler and J. Kraye, Cambridgep. The general topic of control over emotions in ancient Stoicism continues to provoke much scholarly discussion, see in particular R.

Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind. Graver, Stoicism and Emotion, Chicago with further copious references. Naturae enim, inquis, imperio gemimus.

An vero hic noster lacrimas arcet, qui etiam praecipiat, ut vel in alienis luctibus, si opus sit, conferamus gemitus pariterque fleamus? Si das in uno hoc aut altero, dabis profecto et multis It is, then, not impossible for a man to live according to Stoic rules even when faced with extreme conditions; but, simultaneously, more and more fine grained distinctions are made so as to distinguish various levels of philosophical maturity and adjust requirements accordingly.

The most general strategy is to adopt a clear-cut division between a perfectly wise man, one of whom we may and should expect a behaviour prescribed by the most stringent Stoic rules; and all those who — however striving to achieve lofty Stoic goals — are only in the middle of a long and arduous travels to wisdom. For the latter — at least, the majority of adepts of philosophy, if not all of them — Stoic admonitions are to be considered as directing toward remote goals, perhaps attainable only in principle, in need to adjustments and corrections when applied to real-life situations.

This strategy had been employed already by Cicero himself in his speech in defence of L. Licinius Murena, when, having exposed Stoic precepts as intolerably harsh, he suggested, addressing Cato, the following interpretation of their status: Ac te ipsum, quantum ego opinione auguror, nunc et animi quodam impetu concitatum et vi naturae atque ingeni elatum et recentibus praeceptorum studiis flagrantem iam usus flectet, dies leniet, aetas mitigabit.

Etenim isti ipsi mihi videntur vestri praeceptores et virtutis magistri finis officiorum paulo longius quam natura vellet protulisse ut, cum ad ultimum animo contendissemus, ibi tamen ubi oporteret consisteremus.

Cicero hoc ad Catonem: Mihi videntur praeceptores vestri et virtutis magistri fines officiorum paulo longius protulisse ut, cum ad ultimum animo contendissemus, ibi tamen ubi oporteret consisteremus It is significant that it is Cicero who is invoked as a supporter of such a position, which may be applied to himself as a proficiens, and which might be argued to be a reasonable stance toward a Christianized version of Stoicism — as providing a set of goals set too high to be achievable, but sufficient to secure a moral progress.

The failure of Cicero, strongly argued for in Lament 16, would be, then, symptomatic of inadequacy and insufficiency of a Stoic way of moral progress. The incompatibility between the two positions, Stoic and Christian, was deeply felt by John of Salisbury, who closes his account of the Stoic position on the fate, having recalled the consequences for the role of astrology and for the free will debate, thus: Errores istos incommoda multa sequuntur, Quod vitare pium, sed numerare labor.

Exaequat culpas poenaque coaequat eadem 35 Epicteti Enchiridion, hoc est Pugio, sive Ars humanae vitae correctrix, Basileae: per Ioannem Oporinum,p. Nam vel sic metriopatheian vix impetrari a vehementioribus ingeniis. Tulli Ciceronis oratio pro Murena, Parisii,p. Ciceronis oratio lepidissima pro L. Murena, Coloniae: apud Ioannem Gymnicum, In multis igitur legi consentit et idem Adversus legem multa docere solet The evidence for various elements of the Stoic doctrine is only much more available and more thoroughly discussed in the sixteenth century, not only because several Greek Stoic texts are successively published, but also because main sources for both the original teaching and the specifically Roman variety of Stoicism, Cicero and Seneca, are given much editorial care.

The picture of Stoicism which gradually emerges should not make one optimistic about prospects for a conciliatory resolution of tensions arising between Christian and Stoic world views; and the debate about free will which has one of its most heavy outbursts in the sixteenth century makes hopes for establishment of at least friendly relations, if not an assimilation, even fainter.

Etenim si legas illum ut paganum, scripsit Christiane, si ut Christianum, scripsit paganice. A proponent of Stoicism is not entirely doomed to failure, though; he may have recourse to two basic strategies of making Stoic teachings palatable for a Christian, which may be applied either in separation or combined together.

First, there is an option to make use of the technique of pia interpretatio, developed and perfected 37 John of Salisbury, Entheticus —; the text is edited by R. Erasmi Roterdami, ed. Allen, H. Allen and H. Garrod, Oxfordvol. II, p. VIII, p. See also L. Entirely unsuitable as a means to reconstruct a philosophical system, this method of reading and interpreting an author puts emphasis on sentences and fragments excerpted from larger texts and typically interpreted without sufficient — if any — regard for their original purpose and context.

This approach, beside favouring reading of collections of sentences41, is promising for enterprises like that undertaken by Agostino Steuco, viz. Without any need to scrutinize every aspect of a philosophical doctrine, it allows one to make a selection of statements which may be given a Christian reinterpretation, teachings which do not fit into the overall picture being passed over in silence.

To take but one example, Steuco, having summarized the 65 epistles of Seneca and embellished his narration with several quotations, sums up as follows: Haec omnis philosophiae Senecae maxime conformis Mosaicae, de mundano primum opifice, de maiestate eius, de exordio mundi, de ideis, rerum scilicet seminibus, affluentiaque sempiterna A second option, freely combinable with the first one, is to cut off as much of Stoic philosophical claims deemed incompatible with Christianity as possible.

Once these options are put together, the precepts which 40 See further M. Chenu, Towards understanding St. Thomas, transl. Landry and D. Hughes, Chicago ; the method had been already applied on a large scale in subjecting Aristotle to a Christianizing interpretation, and subsequently to Plato as one of several ways of appropriation of his thought, see J.

Hankins, Plato in the Italian Renaissance, 2 vols, Leiden On Steuco see further Ch. When Lipsius, finally, constructs a reading programme accompanying his edition of Seneca — a set of advices carefully distributed across the prefatory Introductio lectoris, introductory De vita et scriptis L.

Annaei Senecae47, and summaries preceding particular texts, together with additional notes — he frequently adverts his readers to the necessity of reading in a selective way: Aurelius and his Meditations from Xylander to Diderot, in: Humanism and Early Modern Philosophy, ed. Kraye and M. Stone, Londonp. Tum quid de Deo sentiendum, in cuius voluntatem ac providentiam referenda sint omnia. Xylander, M. The death of a philosopher continues to reveal the reliability of his philosophical teachings.

Ker, The Deaths of Seneca, Oxford Primum, ut quamquam pleraque omnia Senecae utilia, et ad vitam, tamen quae maxime talia eligas et ea ad mentem saepius referas et ad manum Tam recte enim et commode de humanis, tam vere ac pie de divinis locutus est, ut neminem ad Christianae religionis certissimam veritatem magis credam accessisse Annaei Senecae philosophi opera quae extant omnia a Iusto Lipsio emendata et scholiis illustrata, Antverpiae: apud Ioannem Moretump.

Sunt et libri De Ira inter bonos, item De Beneficiis, sed in partibus spinas suas aut fastidia habent; alioqui et pulcherrimos ac divinos locos. The insistence on sententiae is closely connected with the stress on meditatio as a fundamental part of philosophical training, a preparation for exercitatio both recommended in chapter 24 of the Manuductio : both strands of spiritual exercises, the ancient one and its Christian, or even more specifically Ignatian, transform, converge in the Christianized Stoicism of Lipsius, making its appropriation easier for his contemporaries; see further J.

Hadot, Philosophy as a Way of Life. Spiritual Exercises from Socrates to Foucault, transl. Chase, Oxfordwith extensive bibliography.

See also J. Kraye, Stoicism… n. Whether in search for a maximally systematic, as with Lipsius, or only very partial, as with Daneau, combination of Christianity and Stoicism, an encounter with yet more fundamental obstacles is sooner or later inevitable. The founders of Stoicism were careful to stress the fact that their philosophical teaching forms an integral whole whose parts cannot be detached without a concomitant loss in their plausibility and coherence; as fragments which survive attest, several organic metaphors served this aim, usefully collected by Sextus Empiricus: [Stoici] admodum probabiliter areae, quae fructus omne genus continet, assimilant philosophiam, ut arborum quidem proceritati comparetur pars naturalis, fructuum autem maturitati et suavitati pars quae pertinet ad mores; parietum autem firmitati logica.

Alii autem dicunt eam esse ovo similem. Nam vitello quidem, quem nonnulli dicunt esse pullum, similem esse eam quae pertinet ad mores; albumini autem, quod est alimentum vitelli, partem naturalem; externae autem testae logicam.

Posidonius autem, quoniam philosophiae partes sunt inter se inseparabiles [ On Daneau, see further Ch. For a discussion of the Ciceronian passage in De officiis, 1. Dyck, A Commentary on Cicero.

De officiis, University of Michigan Press ; the Renaissance struggle for a correct interpretation of the term katorthoma is told in J. Kraye, Cicero, Stoicism and Textual Criticism. Whichever direction is taken as appropriate, whether one takes physics or ethics as the starting point58, their close relationship presents an obstacle to adoption of a Stoic position without thereby importing elements fundamentally incompatible with Christianity.

Of particular relevance is the connection between the whole complex of Stoic teachings related to fate and necessity on the one hand, and the body of Christian doctrines on free will and providence. Its importance is highlighted by the motto which Kochanowski adopts for his poetical cycle, viz.

As both the exact wording of the quotation accepted by Kochanowski and subsequent 55 Sextus Empiricus, Adversus mathematicos 7. On Latin translations of Sextus Empiricus, see L. The collection of fragments of the Stoa relevant for the understanding of philosophy as an organic unity may be found in Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, ed.

The issue is further discussed in G. Verbeke, Ethics and logic in Stoicism, in: Atoms, pneuma and tranquillity. Epicurean and Stoic themes in European thought, ed. Osler, Cambridgep. Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, Oxfordp.

For a relevant discussion and complications of the picture, see J. Annas, The Morality of Happiness, Oxfordp. Augustine in his discussion of the Stoic conception of fate in the fifth book of De civitate Dei Nec in hac quaestione auctoritatem haberet poetica sententia; sed quoniam Stoicos dicit vim fati asserentes istos ex Homero versus solere usurpare, non de illius poetae, sed de istorum philosophorum opinione tractatur, cum per istos versus, quos disputationi adhibent quam de fato habent, quid sentiant esse fatum apertissime declaratur, quoniam Iovem appellant, quem summum deum putant, a quo connexionem dicunt pendere fatorum Qui reiecto fato astrologorum infert: At qui omnium connexionem seriemque causarum, qua fit omne quod fit, fati nomine appellant ii sunt nostri: non multum cum eis de verbi controversia laborandum atque certandum est: quandoquidem ipsum causarum ordinem et quandam connexionem Dei summi tribuunt voluntati.

Addit alia, et alibi ex ipso Seneca approbat hanc eorum mentem esse The reference to Augustine strengthens the reinterpretation of Stoic notions — those of crucial importance for the Album) position — that Lipsius is eager to support; at the same time, it exemplifies the strategy to extract Stoic statements out their context and thereby to give them meanings quite different from the original position.

Sutton, Religion and the Failures of Determinism, in: The Uses of Antiquity: the scientific revolution and the classical tradition, ed. Gaukroger, Dordrechtp. For an extensive treatment of Stoic teachings on determinism, see S.

Sorabji, Necessity, cause and blame. The trouble was also more difficult to overcome than in the case of Aristotle or Plato: the former had already undergone extensive exegetical activity and tensions had been for the major part solved, and, besides, the very nature of Aristotelian corpus had also helped to separate parts more apt for a Christianizing interpretation; the latter had experienced an analogous process, if on a lesser scale, and a Christian path had also been cloven through the forest of his dialogues.

The most systematic proponent of Christianized Stoicism, Lipsius, is well aware of the holistic nature of the Stoic doctrine, and makes use of an analogous metaphor to convey the internal coherence and inseparability of Stoic claims: [ Iam ex isto ecce rami et ramuli adsurgunt mira serie nexi. Proprium hoc Stoicorum, vincire omnia et quasi anulos nectere in catena, ut non ordo solum, sed sequela et cohaesio sit rerum When it comes to the execution of such philosophical project, however, Lipsius is forced either to pass in silence over Stoic claims which are blatantly resistant to a Christian interpretation, or to apply tacitly exegetical strategies which substantially change the content of philosophical assertions made with quite different intents and in very different contexts — suffice it to mention an all-important reinterpretation of the term natura: Natura totum sinum suum offert et pandit: supera, media, infera, caelum, terras, ignem, aquas, aera, quidquid iis continetur, Deum, Walczyk O Prawdę Jakąś - Kirkut-Koncept - Kirkut-Koncept (Cassette, genios, homines.

Consistently applied to Stoic natural philosophy, this interpretation — for which Lipsius is also able to cite early Christian precedents — implies deep changes in the naturalistic thought of Stoics. Lipsius does not hide the transformative nature of his exposition, nor does he shy from stating his aims explicitly. Already prefacing a reedition of De constantia with Ad lectorem pro constantia mea praescriptio, Lipsius addresses charges against his philosophical proposal outlined in the dialogue which follows: Negant satis pie hoc argumentum a me tractatum [ Parum pie ideo, quia philosophum tantum egisse videor, inquiunt, nec inspersisse quae potui et debui e libris sacris On relations between Polish intellectual world and Lipsius and reception of his work, see A.

Tournoy, J. Landtsheer and J. Papy, Leuvenp. Quae servitus ista sit? Alius iugum subeat: tu mecum, sive cum Seneca, aude profari: Non me cuiquam mancipavi, nullius nomen fero. Multorum magnorum virorum iudicio tribuo, aliquid et meo vindico.

Quodsi omnino lubet partiarium esse, una secta est in quam, me iudice, tuto nomen demus. Ea es eklektike electivam liceat reddere An attempt to build a Christian version of Stoicism requires — despite a generally systemic approach of Lipsius — a radical change, disrupting the unity of the Stoic vision of the world, imposing an entirely different conceptual scheme on separated parts of an originally strongly interconnected system The ultimate failure of Cicero in Lament 16 is indicative of the impossibility of doing otherwise: in the search for an encompassing worldview, a decisive choice has to be made.

It is done in Lament 17, where both matter and form become distinctively and unequivocally Christian. For extensive comments on the Neostoic treatment of Stoic teachings, see A. Inwood ed. Barker, Stoic contributions to early modern science, in M. Osler ed. Kraszewskiego ok. Gomulicki, t. W lecie urodzin, red. Nowak, Warszawas. Pisze na ten temat L.

Mickiewicz, Pan Tadeusz, s. Czy Podkomorzy nie zna istotnie nazwiska Jana Jakuba? Szmydtowa, Rousseau — Mickiewicz i inne studia, Warszawa Nawarecki, A. Dziadek, Katowice Mickiewicz, Listy. Jaworska, M. Po polsku czy raczej po francusku15? Witkowska, Telimena, w: J. Rymkiewicz, D.

Siwicka, A. Witkowska, M. Encyklopedia, Warszawa16 A. Poemat, red. Dopart, F. Dalej — nieodpowiednia sceneria. To Anglia, Szkocja i Niemcy Fragmenty romantycznej biografii, Warszawas. Rekonesans, red. Kalinowska i B. Studium literackie, wyd. Teraz Kucharz 27 J.

Pre-tekst, tekst i mit, w: Pan Tadeusz i jego dziedzictwo. Jak w dawnych czasach. Niedzielski, Warszawas. Z punktu widzenia filologa, historyka literatury, biografa poety — zapewne nie. Nie dziw! Hrabec, t. Prawdopodobnie i jedno, i drugie. Weintraub, Poeta i prorok. Rzecz o profetyzmie Mickiewicza, Warszawas. The protagonists of this masterpiece read cookery-books, newspapers, pamphlets, poems and others. It is very interesting that Tadeusz Soplica, a positive character, does not read a lot.

The erudite persons are the foreigners for example Buchman or the adherents of foreign customs for example Telimena and Hrabia. Szymanis Mistyczny wymiar Mickiewiczowskiego mesjanizmu, w: Mickiewicz mistyczny, red. Fabianowski i E. Hoffmann-Piotrowska, Warszawas. Eseje metafizyczne, Warszawas. Marian Auszwicki [ Pankowski, Z Auszwicu do Belsen, Warszawa,kolejne cytaty ze s.

Bolecki i E. Adorno, Minima moralia. Pankowski, De arte poetica, Sanokwyd. Pankowski, Z Auszwicu do Belsen, s. Reprezentatywne utwory Pankowskiego m. Nycz, A. Pankowski, Matuga idzie. Przygody, Lublins. The rich reservoir of topics used by the author, e. Michalski, Warszawas. The German translation and the foreign-language edition were no exception for Wirpsza3.

The poet frequently crossed the borders of contemporaneous Polish literary world4. Yet, in many 1 W. Kurecka, ed. Bense and E. Walther, rot, no. The book has unnumbered pages. All references are to this and the only edition. WierszeWarszawa ; W. The year was the time when the Polish press attacked the poet after the release of his collection of essays Pole, wer bist du? Previously Wirpsza had also received travel scholarships for the stays i. See, Walczyk O Prawdę Jakąś - Kirkut-Koncept - Kirkut-Koncept (Cassette.

At that time both authors had a long-term common experience in translating and writing own texts, while the problems of translation as such were an important subject of their essays. The singularity of the German volume is highlighted by the translated texts themselves.

They often seem to clarify the more obscure fragments and to uncover the less overt senses of the original versions of the poems. A significant element of both the poems and their translations is the use of unconventional spacing. The book of translations displays its precise role in the creation of meanings and teaches us how to read the space of the poem, an aspect so often explored in the contemporaneous German concrete poetry.

See: A. Book of translations as a self-commentary. I am however forced to change the font type. Instead, I will concentrate on the spectrum of textual devices that were typical of Wirpsza himself, and on the methods of their translation.

The pair of translators The concepts of translation exposed in the texts of Maria Kurecka and Witold Wirpsza are worth, to my mind, being considered together. Both translators were equally engaged in the work and they both presented the reflections based on that shared effort in the texts devoted to translation. The book has an asymmetric grid layout, flush left, square format and red cover. Antologia, ed. Balcerzan and E. Kurecka, Diabelne tarapaty, p. Aleksandra Kremer 70 volume.

For instance, in an article by Wirpsza published in there appears a consideration of a particular translation problem. I mean here the poetry of Kurecka herself.

In her poems from that time Kurecka uses the motives and quotations very similar to Wirpsza Both authors root their ideas in the collectively translated Homo Album). Consequently, Kurecka describes the process of translation as a disinterested play, which is however limited by certain rules: the rules of artistic translation, which ought to be communicative and insightful.

Kurecka notices certain tension which appears during the play, that is the tension in which a player displays his or her abilities and aims at 14 W.

It covered the poems written between the time of war and the s. See: M. That victory is of course a perfect translation. The tension results from the necessity of overcoming linguistic habits and verbosity, and at the same time from the constant feeling of insufficiency In his translatological essays Wirpsza similarly speaks of the brutality towards the target language and the inevitability of looking for the solutions closest to the source text, which may, in effect, result in freshness and freedom However, first and foremost it is poetry that is viewed by the author as a play of meanings Wirpsza underlines the difference between the work of poetic translation and the poetic creation itself.

Interpretation interferes with a given work and strengthens its intensity and equivocality. The complete work, as Wirpsza claims inis both the literary text and its criticism, or, as one would like to say: the text and its translation Greimas, op.

Szkice literackie, Warszawas. W pewnym sensie miasto jest ukochanym potworem literatury. Znowu zbrodnia! Cieszy to pana tak bardzo? Znajdujemy tutaj tylko przymiotnik podmiejski" s.

Szmidt, op. Podraza-Kwiatkowska i J. Kwiatkowski Magnuszewski Berent Kaden. Charakteryzuje go uczestnictwo w widowisku, zbiegowisku, salonie jako wydarzeniu towarzyskim, w procesji, pochodzie. Oto opera w Oziminie. A tam i fortami przede wszystkim Kwiatkowski, op. Bukowski, Warszawa. Santarcangeli, op.

Przynajmniej dla mnie. Z czasem zrobiono podobnie. Z wizji Ludwika. Ca, c'est Paris Ale co z pisaniem? Chodzi o uczucie? Niech ta Warszawa nie zniknie na zawsze". Prus Kroniki t. New Yorks. Uosabia ona moim zdaniem ducha Warszawy, podobnie jak Rzecki Prusa. W plac. Typowo warszawska. Singer Shosha, New Yorks M. Warszawska materia przeczy czasowi. Cichy placyk z drzewami, z wylotami kilku uliczek.

Ile to lat? To tylko drugie tyle. Ustalone cywilizacje, kultury. Ano tak, dawno, w roku. Barthes Historia czy literatura? Idzie mianowicie 0 tzw. Witkowska Literatura romantyzmu, Warszawa ; K M.

Markiewicz Literatura pozytywizmu, Warszawa ; H Cz. Hernas Literatura baroku, Warszawa ; Z J. Ziomek Literatura Odrodzenia, Warszawa To pierwsze jest popularniejsze i jest obecne praktycznie we wszystkich opisywanych syntezach. Idzie o spowodowanie", modyfikowanie", dyktowanie", konsekwencje", rezultat", poddanie naporowi", wynikanie". Lakoff, M. Bettelheim Freud i dusza ludzka, Warszawas. Podobnie chyba z esejem. Samoobrona organizmu?

Herberta i Grochowiaka w PAX- -owskim almanachu Eksplikacje literackie. Eksplikacje literackie, red. Dynak i A. Labuda, WarszawaWydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne. Eksplikacja, traktowana jako jednorazowe urozmaicenie nie ma sensu. I jeszcze jedna kwestia, bodaj najciekawsza. Anna Pilch. Ja nie mam na to czasu i nie jest to moja funkcja. Ale i jedni i drudzy byli na lewo. Nie tylko inteligencji. Poza tym w polskiej literaturze jest bardzo niezdrowa sytuacja.

Kwestia dzisiejszego kanonu jest otwarta.


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