Women who meet the third and first categories usually fall under the terms 'birth mother' or 'biological mother', regardless of whether the individual in question goes on to parent their child. Accordingly, a woman who meets only the second condition may be considered an adoptive mother, and those who meet only the first or only the third a surrogacy mother.
An adoptive mother is a female who has become the child's parent through the legal process of adoption. A biological mother is the female genetic contributor to the creation of the infant, through sexual intercourse or egg donation. A biological mother may have legal obligations to a child not raised by her, such as an obligation of monetary support. A putative mother is a female whose biological relationship to a child is alleged but has not been established.
A stepmother is a female who is the wife of a child's father and they may form a family unit, but who generally does not have the legal rights and responsibilities of a parent in relation to the child.
The above concepts defining the role of mother are neither exhaustive nor universal, as any definition of 'mother' may vary based on how social, cultural, and religious roles are defined. The parallel conditions and terms for males: those who are typically biologically fathers do not, by definition, take up the role of fatherhood. Motherhood and fatherhood are not limited to those who are or have parented. Women who are pregnant may be referred to as expectant mothers or mothers-to-be, though such applications tend to be less readily applied to biological fathers or adoptive parents.
The adjective "maternal" refers to Mother mother and comparatively to "paternal" for a father. The verb "to mother" means to procreate or to sire a child from which also derives the noun "mothering".
Related terms of endearment are mom mamamommymummumsymamacita mamam and mammy. A female role model that children can look up to is sometimes referred to as a mother-figure. Biological motherhood for humansas in other mammalsoccurs when a pregnant female gestates a fertilized ovum the "egg". A female can become pregnant through sexual intercourse after she has begun to ovulate.
In well-nourished girls, menarche the first menstrual period Mother takes place around the age of 12 or Typically, a fetus develops from the viable zygoteresulting in an embryo. Gestation occurs in the woman's uterus until the fetus assuming it is carried to term is sufficiently developed to be born. In humans, gestation is often around 9 months in duration, after which the woman experiences labor and gives birth.
This is not always the case, however, as some babies are born prematurelylate, or in the case of stillbirthdo not survive gestation. Usually, once the baby is born, the mother produces milk via the lactation process. The mother's breast milk is the source of antibodies for the infant's immune systemand commonly the sole source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to eat and digest other foods; older infants and toddlers may continue to be breastfed, in combination with other foods, which should be introduced from approximately Mother months of age.
Childlessness is the state of not having children. Childlessness may have personal, social or political significance. Childlessness may be voluntary childlessnesswhich occurs by choice, or may be involuntary due to health problems or social circumstances. Motherhood is usually voluntary, but may also be the result of forced pregnancysuch as pregnancy from rape. Unwanted motherhood occurs especially in cultures which practice forced marriage and child marriage. Mother can often apply to a woman other than the biological parent, especially if she fulfills the main social role in raising the child.
This is commonly either an adoptive mother or a stepmother the biologically unrelated partner of a child's father. The term " othermother " or "other mother" is also used in some contexts for women who provide care for a child not biologically their own in addition to the child's primary mother.
Adoption, in various forms, has been practiced throughout history, even predating human civilization. In recent decades, international adoptions have become more and more common.
Adoption in the United States is common and relatively easy from a legal point of view compared to other Western countries. A surrogate mother is a woman who bears a child that came from another woman's fertilized ovum on behalf of a couple unable to give birth to children. Thus the surrogate mother carries and gives birth to a child that she is not the biological mother of. Surrogate motherhood became possible with advances in reproductive technologiessuch as in vitro fertilization.
Not all women who become pregnant via in vitro fertilization are surrogate mothers. Surrogacy involves both a genetic mother, who provides the ovum, and a gestational or surrogate mother, who carries the child to term. The possibility for lesbian and bisexual women in same-sex relationships or women without a partner to become mothers has increased over the past few decades [ when? Modern lesbian parenting a term that somewhat erases the bisexual case originated with women who were in heterosexual relationships who later identified as lesbian or bisexual, as changing attitudes provided more acceptance for non-heterosexual relationships.
Another way for such women to become mothers is through adopting or foster parenting. There is also the option of self- insemination and clinically assisted donor insemination, forms of artificial insemination. As fertility technology has advanced, more females not in a heterosexual relationship have become mothers through in vitro fertilization.
The social roles associated with motherhood are variable across time, culture, and social class. In many cultures, women received significant help in performing these tasks from older female relatives, such as mothers in law or their own mothers. Regarding women in the workforcemothers are said to often follow a " mommy track " rather than being entirely " career women ". Mothers may be stay at home mothers or working mothers, Mother.
In recent decades there has been an increase in stay at home fathers too. Social views on these arrangements vary significantly by culture: in Europe for instance, in German-speaking countries there is a strong tradition of mothers exiting the workforce and being homemakers. Mothers' rights within the workforce include maternity leave and parental leave.
Tell us about this example sentence:. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. The sentence contains offensive content. Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed. A1 [ C ] a female parent :. My mother was 21 when she got married. All the mothers and fathers had been invited to the end-of-term concert. The little kittens and their mother were all curled up asleep in the same basket.
My mother smiled encouragingly at me as I went up on stage. Mother mother's death when he was aged six had a very profound effect on him. Like many mothers, Mother feels torn between her family and her work. The supermarket was full of harassed-looking mothers with young children. Family: relations in general. Religious titles. Head baker Saci made his mother nearly twenty years ago. He shows them how to mix older mother dough with fresh new dough for the perfect balance of flavor.
The kefir mother grows slowly from batch to batch. Here's how to grow a kombucha mother. Organic, unfiltered apple cider vinegar also contains "mother," strands of proteinsenzymes and friendly bacteria that give the product a murky appearance. Official Sites. Company Credits. Technical Specs. Plot Summary. Plot Keywords. Parents Guide. External Sites.
User Reviews. User Ratings. External Reviews. Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. A couple's relationship is tested when uninvited guests arrive at their home, disrupting their tranquil existence. Director: Darren Aronofsky. Writer: Darren Aronofsky. Added to Watchlist. From metacritic. Most Anticipated Horror Films of Favourite Movies.
Vistas love!! Kedvenc filmjeim. Share this Rating Title: Mother! Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Jennifer Lawrence Mother Javier Bardem Him Ed Harris Man Michelle Pfeiffer Woman Brian Gleeson Younger Brother Domhnall Gleeson Oldest Son Jovan Adepo Cupbearer Amanda Chiu Damsel Patricia Summersett Consoler Eric Davis Bumbler Raphael Grosz-Harvey Philanderer Emily Hampshire Fool Abraham Aronofsky
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