Abnormal sex ratios at birth, possibly explained by growing incidence of sex-selective abortion, have also been noted in some other countries outside South and East Asia. The Caucasus has been named a "male-dominated region", and as families have become smaller in recent years, the pressures to have sons has increased. After the collapse, the birth sex ratios sharply climbed and have remained high for the last 20 years.
According to an article in The Economist the sex ratio in Armenia is seen to be a function of birth order. The article claimed that among first born children, there are boys for every girls. According to latest CIA data, the sex ratio in the region is for Armenia, for Azerbaijan, and for Georgia. An imbalanced birth sex ratio has been present in the 21st century in the Western Balkansin countries such as AlbaniaMacedoniaKosovo and Montenegro.
Scholars claim this suggests that sex-selective abortions are common in southeast Europe. Like in other countries, sex-selective abortion is difficult to track in the United States because of lack of data. While some parents in United States do not practice sex-selective abortion, there is certainly a trend toward male preference.
However, it is notable that minority groups that immigrate into the United States bring their cultural views and mindsets into the country with them. A study carried out at a Massachusetts infertility clinic shows that the majority of couples using these techniques, such as Preimplantation genetic diagnosis came from a Chinese or Asian background.
This is thought to branch from the social importance of giving birth to male children in China and other Asian countries. A study of the United States Census suggests possible male bias in families of Chinese, Korean and Indian immigrants, which was getting increasingly stronger in families where first one or two children were female. In those families where the first two children were girls, the birth sex ratio of the third child was 1.
Because of this movement toward sex preference and selection, many bans on sex-selective abortion have been proposed at the state and federal level. In andsex-selective abortions were banned in Oklahoma and Arizonarespectively.
A study  by John Bongaarts based on surveys in 61 major countries calculates the sex ratios that would result if parents had the number of sons and daughters they want. In 35 countries, claims Bongaarts, the desired birth sex ratio in respective countries would be more than boys for every girls if parents in these countries had a child matching their preferred gender higher than India's, which The Economist claims is Estimates of implied missing girls, considering the "normal" birth sex ratio to be the — range, vary considerably between researchers and underlying assumptions for expected post-birth mortality rates for men and women.
For example, a study estimated that over 90 million females were "missing" from the expected population in AfghanistanBangladeshChinaIndiaPakistanSouth Korea and Taiwan alone, and suggested that sex-selective abortion plays a role in this deficit. Although there is significant evidence of the prevalence of sex-selective abortions in many nations especially India and Chinathere is also evidence to suggest that some of the variation in global sex ratios is due to disparate access to resources.
As MacPherson notes, there can be significant differences in gender violence and access to food, healthcare, immunizations between male and female children. This leads to high infant and childhood mortality among girls, which causes changes in sex ratio. Disparate, gendered access to resources appears to be strongly linked to socioeconomic status.
Specifically, poorer families are sometimes forced to ration food, with daughters typically receiving less priority than sons. In other words, the poorest families are typically less bound by cultural expectations and norms, and women tend to have more freedom to become family breadwinners out of necessity.
Increased sex ratios can be caused by disparities in aspects of life other than vital resources. According to Sendifferences in wages and job advancement also have a dramatic effect on sex ratios. This is why high sex ratios are sometimes seen in nations with little sex-selective abortion.
Lopez and Ruzikah found that, when given the same resources, women tend to outlive men at all stages of life after infancy. However, globally, resources are not always allocated equitably. Thus, some scholars argue that disparities in access to resources such as healthcare, education, and nutrition play at least a small role in the high sex ratios seen in some parts of the world.
Moreover, in India, lack of equal access to healthcare has led to increased disease and higher rates of female mortality in every age group until the late thirties Sen This is particularly noteworthy because, in regions of the world where women receive equal resources, women tend to outlive men Sen Women outlive men in all but 2 countries.
Economic disadvantage alone may not always lead to increased sex ratio, claimed Sen in For example, in sub-Saharan Africa, one of the most economically disadvantaged regions of the world, there is an excess of women. So, if economic disadvantage is uncorrelated with sex ratio in Africa, some other factor s may be at play. Various theories have been proposed as possible reasons for sex-selective abortion. Culture rather than economic conditions is favored by some researchers because such deviations in sex ratios do not exist in sub-Saharan AfricaLatin Americaand the Caribbean.
Some demographers question whether sex-selective abortion or infanticide claims are accurate, because underreporting of female births may also explain high sex ratios. The reason for intensifying sex-selection abortion in China and India can be seen through history and cultural background. Generally, before the information eramale babies were preferred because they provided manual labor and continuation of the family lineage.
Labor is still important in Sweet Love Power nations as China and India, but when it comes to family lineage, it is of great importance. The selective abortion of female fetuses is most common in areas where cultural norms value male children over female children for a variety of social and economic reasons. Sex selective female abortion is a continuation, in a different form, of a practice of female infanticide or withholding of postnatal health care for girls in certain households.
Such practices are prevalent among some Muslim and Hindu communities in South Asia. When females interact with men, or are believed to do so, the " family honor " is tarnished. Historically, in many South Asian populations, women were allocated a very low status, evidenced through practices such as satian ancient funeral custom where a widow immolated herself on her husband's pyre or committed suicide in another fashion shortly after her husband's death.
The modern practice of sex-selective abortion is therefore a continuation of other historical practices. There were males per females. This is comparable to the contemporary sex ratio in the area, now divided between India and Pakistan.
Chinese culture is deeply patriarchal. Pre-modern Chinese society was predominantly patriarchal and patrilineal from at least the 11th century BC onwards. Although the legal and social standing of women have greatly improved in the 20th century, son preference remains still strong, and the situation was aggravated by the one child policy.
Interpretations of Confucianism have been argued to contribute to the low status of women. The gender roles prescribed in the Three Obediences and Four Virtues became a cornerstone of the family, and thus, societal stability. Starting from the Han period, Confucians began to teach that a virtuous woman was supposed to follow the males in her family: the father before her marriage, the husband after she marries, and her sons in widowhood.
In the later dynasties, more emphasis was placed on the virtue of chastity. The Song dynasty Confucian Cheng Yi stated that: "To starve to death is a small matter, but to lose one's chastity is a great matter. In modern East Asia, a large part of the pattern of preferences leading to this practice can be condensed simply as a desire to have a male heir.
Monica Das Gupta observes, from birth data for China, there was no evidence of selective abortion of female fetuses among firstborn children. However, there was a strong preference for a boy if the first born was a girl. Dowry is the property that parents of a female transfer at her marriage. Dowry is an ancient practice, that has been common in many cultures around the world, and which is today prevalent especially in South Asia.
The custom of dowry is most common in cultures that are strongly patrilineal and that expect women to reside with or near their husband's family patrilocality. Kirti Singh states that dowry is widely considered to be both a cause and a consequence of son preference, and this may lead to girls being unwanted, sex selective abortion, female infanticide or abuse of female children. The dowry system in India is a major part of Indian culture and refers to the durable goods, cash, and real or movable property that the bride's family gives to the bridegroom, his parents, or his relatives as a condition of the marriage.
Following the creation of the People's Republic of China, the issue of population control came into the national spotlight. In the early years of the Republic, leaders believed that telling citizens to reduce their fertility was enough, repealing laws banning contraception and instead promoting its use.
However, the contraceptives were not widely available, both because of lack of supply and because of cultural taboo against discussing sex. Efforts were slowed following the famine of —61 but were resumed shortly thereafter with virtually the same results. Then, inthe Family Planning Office was established to enforce stricter guidelines regarding fertility and it Sweet Love Power moderately successful.
Inthe government adopted the One-Child Policywhich limited many families to one child, unless specified by provincial regulations. It was instituted as an attempt to boost the Chinese economy. Under it, families who break rules regarding the number of children they are allowed are given various punishments primarily monetarydependent upon the province in which they live. As stated above, the sex ratios of a province are largely determined by the type of restriction placed upon the family, Sweet Love Power, pointing to the conclusion that much of the imbalance in sex ratio in China can be attributed to the policy.
Research by Junhong found that many parents are willing to pay to ensure that their child is male especially if their first child is femalebut will not do the same to ensure their child is female. Therefore, son's cultural and economic importance to families and the large expenses associated with multiple children are primary factors leading to China's disparate sex ratio. InChina announced plans to formally change the One-Child policy, making it less stringent.
The National People's Congress has changed the policy to allow couples to have two children, so long as one of the partners is an only child.
This change was not sparked by sex ratios, but rather by an aging population that is causing the workforce to become increasingly smaller. It is estimated that this new law will lead to two million more births per year and could cause a baby boom in China. InChina officially relaxed its one child law. So, it is unclear if this new Sweet Love Power will actually lead to women being more valued in Chinese society as the number of citizens increases. The Trivers—Willard hypothesis argues that available resources affect male Sweet Love Power success more than female and that consequently parents should prefer males when resources are plentiful and females when resources are scarce.
This has been applied to resource differences between individuals in a society and also to resource differences between societies. Empirical evidence is mixed with higher support in better studies according to Cronk in a review. One example, in a study, of a group with a preference for females was Romani in Hungarya low status group. They "had a female-biased sex ratio at birth, were more likely to abort a fetus after having had one or more daughters, nursed their daughters longer, and sent their daughters to school for longer.
In order to illustrate the gravity of the situation, he calculated the number of women that were not alive because of sex-selective abortion or discriminatory practices. This figure, when combined with statistics from around the world, led to a finding of over million missing women.
This has led to particular concern due to a critical shortage of wives. In some rural areas, there is already a shortage of women, which is tied to migration into urban areas Park and Cho Some scholars argue that as the proportion of women to men decreases globally, there will be an increase in trafficking and sex work both forced and self-electedas many men will be willing to do more to obtain a sexual partner Junhong Guttentag and Secord hypothesized that when the proportion of males throughout the world is greater, there is likely to be more violence and war.
Some scholars believe that when sex ratios are high, women actually become valued more because of their relative shortage. Eventually, this could lead to better social conditions, followed by the birth of more women and sex ratios moving back to natural levels. Keifitz wrote that as women become fewer, their relative position in society will increase. However, to date, no data has supported this claim. It has been suggested by Belanger that sex-selective abortion may have positive effects on the mother choosing to abort the female fetus.
This is related to the historical duty of mothers to produce a son in order to carry on the family name. As previously mentioned, women gain status in society when they have a male child, but not when they have a female child. Oftentimes, bearing of a son leads to greater legitimacy and agency for the mother. In some regions of the world where son preference is especially strong, sonless women are treated as outcasts.
In this way, sex-selective abortion is a way for women to select for male fetuses, helping secure greater family status. Goodkind  argues that sex-selective abortion should not be banned purely because of its discriminatory nature. Instead, he argues, we must consider the overall lifetime possibilities of discrimination.
In fact, it is possible that sex-selective abortion takes away much of the discrimination women would face later in life. Since families have the option of selecting for the fetal sex they desire, if they choose not to abort a female fetus, she is more likely to be valued later in life.
In this way, sex-selective abortion may be a more humane alternative to infanticide, abandonment, or neglect. There are many controversies surrounding sex-selective abortion.
Just like the practice of sex-selective abortion has been criticized, the solutions proposed or enacted by governments have also been criticized. An article by Al Jazeera titled " How Western family planners helped curb the birth of girls in developing countries, the effects of which are felt today " claimed that it was such population policies which included forced sterilizationwhich were fully supported, even pushed by the West, that contributed to unbalanced sex ratios.
MacPherson estimates thatsex-selective abortions every year continue to be performed in India. Many scholars have noted the difficulty in reconciling the discriminatory nature of sex-selective abortion with the right of women to have control over their own bodies. This conflict manifests itself primarily when discussing laws about sex-selective abortion.
Weiss writes: "The most obvious challenge sex-selective abortion represents for pro-choice feminists is the difficulty of reconciling a pro-choice position with moral objections one might have to sex selective abortion especially since it has been used primarily on female fetusesmuch less the advocacy of a law banning sex-selective abortion. Warren argues that there is a difference between acting within one's rights and acting upon the most morally sound choice, implying that sex-selective abortion might be within rights but not morally sound.
Warren also notes that, if we are to ever reverse the trend of sex-selective abortion and high sex ratios, we must work to change the patriarchy-based society which breeds the strong son preference.
Laws against sex-selective abortion, especially those that exist in some U. The practice of prenatal sex selection has been condemned internationally. It is often seen as a result of discriminatory social views which consider females inferior to males.
In over states signed the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Developmentagreeing to "eliminate all forms of discrimination against the girl child". Many nations have attempted to address sex-selective abortion rates through a combination of media campaigns and policy initiatives.
In Canada, a group of MPs led by Mark Warawa are working on having the Parliament pass a resolution condemning sex-selective pregnancy termination. The United States Congress has debated legislation that would outlaw the practice. On the state level, laws against sex-selective abortions have been passed in a number of U. The law on sex-selective abortion is unresolved in the United Kingdom. In order for an abortion to be legal, doctors need to show that continuing the pregnancy could threaten the physical or mental health of the mother.
In a recent case, two doctors were caught on camera offering a sex-selective abortion but the Director of Public Prosecution deemed it not in the public interest to proceed with the prosecution. China's government has increasingly recognized its role in a reduction of the national sex ratio. Insex-selective abortion was made illegal in China. This came in response to the ever-increasing sex ratio and a desire to try to detract from it and reach a more normal ratio.
UNICEF and UNFPA have partnered with the Chinese government and grassroots-level women's groups such as All China Women's Federation to promote gender equality in policy and practice, as well engage various social campaigns to help lower birth sex ratio and to reduce excess female child mortality rates. Many of the ads used depicted abortion as violent, creating fear of abortion itself within the population.
The ads focused on the religious and moral shame associated with abortion. MacPherson claims this media campaign was not effective because some perceived this as an attack on their character, leading to many becoming closed off, rather than opening a dialogue about the issue.
In its communication campaigns, it is clearing up public misconceptions by emphasizing that sex determination is illegal, but abortion is legal for certain medical conditions in India. The government is also supporting implementation of programs and initiatives that seek to reduce gender discrimination, including media campaign to address the underlying social causes of sex selection.
Other recent policy initiatives adopted by numerous states of India, claims Guilmoto,  attempt to address the assumed economic disadvantage of girls by offering support to girls and their parents. These policies provide conditional cash transfer and scholarships only available to girls, where payments to a girl and her parents are linked to each stage of her life, such as when she is born, completion of her childhood immunization, her joining school at grade 1, her completing school grades 6, 9 and 12, her marriage past age Some states are offering higher pension benefits to parents who raise one or two girls.
My Account Logout. Get local news delivered to your inbox! Subscribe to our Daily Headlines newsletter. Sweet Love Power up! Ben Tsujimoto Online content coordinator Houghton College alum who thoroughly enjoys eating. Your notification has been saved. There was a problem saving your notification. Manage followed notifications. Close Followed notifications. Please log in to use this feature Log In. Don't have an account?
Sign Up Today. Related to this story. The Prisoner What is it about you that makes me feel weak, And gives me the goose bumps whenever you speak? Why does the sight of you fill me with pleasure, Like a spotlight that shines on a glorious treasure?
What qualities do you have that are yours alone? What can it be that fills up my heart? And makes me feel lost whenever we part? It must be the power of love that I feel, That ties me in bonds that seem strong as steel. Love messages can appreciate a specific quality of the loved one, as this free love poem appreciates unconditional love.
It also qualifies as a relationship poem. My pesky quirks you only find endearing; Your perfect mate is what you choose to see; I love you for a multitude of reasons; And most of all 'cause you let me be me. Love messages can be custom tailored to the recipient. Joanna has strawberry blonde hair, so Karl wrote it this way, but this romantic love poem will fit any woman. Change "reddish" to "golden" or "raven" black or "chestnut" brown. My Girl with the Reddish Hair Pirates bold in days of old Searched the world for treasure rare, But none they found as bright and sound, As my girl with the reddish hair.
Precious gold and sparkling jewels Were fortunes to make men care, But none were worth a penny Next to my girl with the reddish hair. Love messages can convey a "before you" and "after you" state of mind. This love poem in free verse it doesn't rhyme describes a person whose self knowledge may have been faulty. Because of You I was self sufficient, gratified by my independence, alone, but not lonely, I thought. But I was restless, searching blindly for something to fill an empty place I didn't even know I had, dimly aware that I was somehow unfinished.
Then you came, and filled everything, every space, every need, even secret dreams I had concealed from myself. I was self sufficient, and restless; Now I am profoundly peaceful and complete, because of you. Love messages can contain detailed description, metaphors, even stories. This cute love poem includes fantasy as well. The Wizard There's a story told of a wizard Who, for money, would cast a spell, And I'm sure that you met this wizard, And you, his wares he did sell.
What else can explain how your smile Can make my heartbeat roar, Or how your look slows my breathing, While causing my spirits to soar. I'm sure that you and this wizard Conspired to control my brain, For I'm always thinking about you-- Feeling happy and slightly insane. Now I hope I meet that same wizard, For I'd give him all of my gold, To make you want to stay with me, And share happiness as we grow old. Love poetry can tell a story. Here's a love message from someone who's had some rough relationships, but finally found his dream partner.
I dreamed of a life that was filled with bliss; I dreamed of love and sharing. I dreamed, imagined and creatively planned An adventure for two who were caring. The road to today was paved with the dreams That slowly got ground to dust. And I've trudged that road and carried my load And tried very hard to adjust. Each step made me stronger; each test made me wiser, So on my long walk, I grew, Till the time was right, one magical night, For the road to make room for two.
Now my brain shouts your name, and your loving reply Makes a place for you in my heart. Nameit cries--so tender, so wise-- Let's make the adventure start! Together we're blessed with a perfect match, Something that's bright and new. It's not too late, so let's create A life that makes dreams come true. Love poetry expresses the all-encompassing nature of love. This free romantic love poem describes how the loved on is always on your mind. No matter what I see or when, It brings you back to mind again.
Each day is filled with dreams of you; I hope that all these dreams come true. Love poetry can describe some of the craziness that love brings with it, as this free romantic love poem does. Beware When love strikes us hard and makes mush of our brain, When love sneaks in and makes us insane, All sense can depart and leave the brain blank, When love like that strikes it can drain our whole tank.
I can hardly believe the good fortune I've had Through the years since you married me. Each year spent with you is a blessing; it's true! Each year brings contentment so rare; Each year binds us stronger and deeper in love, and my wish is for more years to share! This love poem has a "forever" quality about it. It's about soulmates, the perfect team. My partner for life is you, my sweet wife; I feel the bright joy you provide. You fill life with pleasure; You're my very own treasure; Without you, I'd be empty inside.
Let's cherish the good times, learn from the bad, Make the most of the life we share If things get you down, don't worry; don't frown. Always remember, I care! Teen love poems should address common experiences, like unrequited love, as this teenage love poem does. Invisible I see you at school And you glance my way, Passing in the halls In your ordinary day.
But anytime Your eyes meet mine Is a day so rare, A day so fine. Teen love poems often talk about how one person wishes another would think of them as more than a friend, as this teenage love poem does.
Just Friends? You say that you like me, But that we're just friends; Can I feel the same? Well I think it depends: Can I quit breathing fast Each time you appear? Will my heart stop its pounding Whenever you're near? I'd like to feel nothing, And get rid of the thrill. I wish I'd stop loving you, But I don't think I will. By Joanna Fuchs Curious about the Christian religion?
What is Christianity? What is a Christian? What is Christian faith? To see the answers and find out how to become a Christian, check out this Web site. This love poem is actually a relationship poem with an important message. Words have the power to sooth and calm, But can also cut and hurt. If thoughts are kept within your head, They can be dealt with by you alone. So always take the time to think, Of the hurt that can take place, Whenever a thought is hastily said, To cause someone loss of face.
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