The real estate dealers instead sell the buildings at higher prices. This cycle of rising building prices continues until only large and well-financed investors are able to continue. Because of the potential for large profits from the conversion of ordinary living spaces to high-rise or office buildings, unscrupulous landlords have used immoral means to intentionally displace low-income residents from rent-controlled areas.
Even when the living spaces in a gentrifying area remain residential, the developers attract new residents with higher incomes because of the services and amenities that improve in conjunction with the increase cost of living and property values. Displacement from these aforementioned methods is disproportionately borne by low-income individuals of color, many of whom are elderly individuals.
In addition to displacement due to rising property values and coercive techniques, low-income individuals and people of color also can face exclusion from the newly planned spaces in the gentrifying location. There are frequent cuts in low-income housing federal assistance, and so new buildings are usually intended for upper-income families. Most gentrification occurs because of a lack of policies that value community input, offer equitable rezoning policies, and provide intentional housing options.
Without policies that attempt to remedy the trends that cause forced displacement, gentrification will continue to dismantle and displace lower-income communities. To develop such policies, we must recognize the disproportionate and destructive effects of gentrification. Close Alert. Examining the Negative Impacts of Gentrification. Clashes that result in increased police surveillance, for example, would more adversely affect young minorities who are also more likely to be the original residents of the area.
There is also evidence to support that gentrification can strengthen and stabilize when there is a consensus about a community's objectives. Gentrifiers with an organized presence in deteriorated neighborhoods can demand and receive better resources. The economic changes that occur as a community goes through gentrification are often favorable for local governments.
Affluent gentrifiers expand the local tax base as well as support local shops and businesses, a large part of why the process is frequently alluded to in urban policies. The decrease in vacancy rates and increase in property value that accompany the process can work to stabilize a previously struggling community, restoring interest in inner-city life as a residential option alongside the suburbs. Home ownership is a significant variable when it comes to economic impacts of gentrification.
People who own their homes are much more able to gain financial benefits of gentrification than those who rent their houses and can be displaced without much compensation. Economic pressure and market price changes relate to the speed of gentrification. English-speaking countries have a higher number of property owners and a higher mobility. German speaking countries provide a higher share of rented property and have a much stronger role of municipalities, cooperatives, guilds and unions offering low-price-housing.
The effect is a lower speed of gentrification and a broader social mix. Gerhard Hard sees gentrification as a typical s term with more visibility in public discourse than actual migration. A study found that gentrification leads to job gains overall, but that there are job losses in proximate locations, but job gains further away.
A study found that residents who stay in gentrifying neighborhoods go Gentrification - Aghast (2) - Desolate Legacy (Vinyl) obtain higher credit scores whereas residents who leave gentrifying neighborhoods obtain lower credit scores.
Gentrified communities see significantly less voter turnout during election years when compared to neighborhoods that are not. Areas that are not experiencing extreme forms of gentrification are able to maintain this concept of "old neighborhood" ties that represent the familiarity and culture within a community.
The social interaction within neighborhoods helps foster greater voter turnout overall. Those that interact within their community, usually from one neighbor to another, will begin to develop not only a better understanding of the neighborhood around them, but the changes that are necessary to benefit the majority in a neighborhood.
This usually occurs when less educated neighbors, especially those in low-income areas, are able to interact with those who are more educated and benefit from sharing opinions.
This communication results in a positive correlation with voting within the neighborhood. Of the urban schools in the U. School gentrification does not inevitably accompany residential gentrification, nor does it necessarily entail academic improvements. In Chicago, among neighborhood public schools located in areas that did undergo gentrification, schools were found to experience no aggregate academic benefit from the socioeconomic changes occurring around them,  despite improvements in other public services such street repair, sanitation, policing, and firefighting.
The lack of gentrification-related benefits to schools may be related to the finding that white gentrifiers often do not enroll their children in local neighborhood public schools. Programs and policies designed to attract gentrifying families to historically disinvested schools may have unintended negative consequences, including an unbalanced landscape of influence wherein the voices and priorities of more affluent parents are privileged over those of lower-income families.
A review found that studies tended to show adverse health impacts for Black residents and elderly residents in areas undergoing gentrification.
A study in New York City, found that gentrification has no impact on rates of asthma or obesity among low-income children. Growing up in gentrifying neighborhoods was associated with moderate increases in being diagnosed with anxiety or depression between ages relative to similar children raised in non-gentrifying areas. The effects of gentrification on mental health were most prominent for children living in market-rate rather than subsidized housing, which lead the authors of the study to suggest financial stress as a possible mechanism.
Whether gentrification has occurred in a census tract in an urban area in the United States during a particular year period between censuses can be determined by a method used in a study by Governing :  If the census tract in a central city had or more residents and at the time of the baseline census had median household income and median home value in the bottom 40th percentile and at the time of the next year census the tract's educational attainment percentage of residents over age 25 with a bachelor's degree was in the top 33rd percentile; the median home value, adjusted for inflation, had increased; and the percentage of increase in home values in the tract was in the top 33rd percentile when compared to the increase in other census tracts in the urban area then it was considered to have been gentrified.
The method measures the rate of gentrification, not the degree of gentrification; thus, San Franciscowhich has a history of gentrification dating to the s, show a decreasing rate between and Scholars have also identified census indicators that can be used to reveal that gentrification is taking place in a given area, including a drop in the number of children per household, increased education among residents, the number of non-traditional types of households, and a general upwards shift in income.
Just as critical to the gentrification process as creating a favorable environment is the availability of the 'gentry,' or those who will be first-stage gentrifiers. The typical gentrifiers are affluent and have professional-level, service industry jobs, many of which involve self-employment.
Often they are single people or young couples without children who lack demand for good schools. For this demographic, gentrification is not so much the result of a return to the inner city but is more of a positive action to remain there. The stereotypical gentrifiers also have shared consumer preferences and favor a largely consumerist culture.
This fuels the rapid expansion of trendy restaurant, shopping, and entertainment spheres that often accompany the gentrification process.
An interesting find from research on those who participate and initiate the gentrification process, the "marginal gentrifiers" as referred to by Tim Butler, is that they become marginalized by the expansion of the process.
Two important ones are white women, typically single mothersas well as white gay people who are typically men. Research shows how one reason wealthy, upper-class individuals and families hold some responsibility in the causation of gentrification due to their social mobility.
At the same time, in these urban areas the lower-income population is decreasing due to an increase in the elderly population as well as demographic change. Jackelyn Hwang and Jeffrey Lin have supported in their research that another reason for the influx of upper-class individuals to urban areas is due to the "increase in demand for college-educated workers". Additionally, Darren P. Smith finds through his research that college-educated workers moving into the urban areas causes them to settle there and raise children, which eventually contributes to the cost of education in regards to the migration between urban and suburban places.
Women increasingly obtaining higher education as well as higher paying jobs has Gentrification - Aghast (2) - Desolate Legacy (Vinyl) their participation in the labor force, translating to an expansion of women who have greater opportunities to invest. Smith suggests this group "represents a reservoir of potential gentrifiers. There are also theories that suggest the inner-city lifestyle is important for women with children where the father does not care equally for the child, because of the proximity to professional childcare.
This is often deemed as "marginal gentrification," for the city can offer an easier solution to combining paid and unpaid labor. Inner city concentration increases the efficiency of commodities parents need by minimizing time constraints among multiple jobs, childcare, and markets.
Phillip Clay's two-stage model of gentrification places artists as prototypical stage one or "marginal" gentrifiers. The National Endowment for the Arts did a study that linked the proportion of employed artists to the rate of inner city gentrification across a number of U. The identity that residence in the inner city provides is important for the gentrifier, and this is particularly so in the artists' case.
Their cultural emancipation from the bourgeois makes the central city an appealing alternative that distances them from the conformity and mundaneness attributed to suburban life. They are quintessential city people, and the city is often a functional choice as well, for city life has advantages that include connections to customers and a closer proximity to a downtown art scene, all of which are more likely to be limited in a suburban setting.
Ley's research cites a quote from a Vancouver printmaker talking about the importance of inner city life to an artist, that it has, "energy, intensity, hard to specify but hard to do without". Ironically, these attributes that make artists characteristic marginal gentrifiers form the same foundations for their isolation as the gentrification process matures.
The later stages of the process generate an influx of more affluent, " yuppie " residents. As the bohemian character of the community grows, it appeals "not only to committed participants, but also to sporadic consumers,"  and the rising property values that accompany this migration often lead to the eventual pushing out of the artists that began the movement in the first place.
Throughout the s and s, Manhattan lofts in SoHo were converted en masse into housing for artists and hippies, and then their sub-culture's followers. Artists, writers, musicians, affluent college students, homosexuals, hipsters and political activists move in to a neighborhood for its affordability and tolerance. Upper-middle-class professionals, often politically liberal-progressive e. Wealthier people e. Manuel Castells has researched the role of gay communities, especially in San Franciscoas early gentrifiers.
To counter the gentrification of their mixed-populace communities, there are cases where residents formally organized themselves to develop the necessary socio-political strategies required to retain local affordable housing. The gentrification of a mixed-income community raises housing affordability to the fore of the community's politics. Inclusionary zoning is a new social concept in English speaking countries; there are few reports qualifying its effective or ineffective limitation of gentrification in the English literature.
The basis of inclusionary zoning is partial replacement as opposed to displacement of the embedded communities. In Los Angeles, California, inclusionary zoning apparently accelerated gentrification, as older, unprofitable buildings were razed and replaced with mostly high-rent housing, and a small percentage of affordable housing; the net result was less affordable housing.
The German approach uses en milieu conservation municipal lawe. The concepts of socially aware renovation and zoning of Bologna 's old city in was used as role model in the Charta of Bologna, and recognized by the Council of Europe. Most economists don't think government anti gentrification measures make cities better off. When wealthy people move into low-income working-class neighborhoods, the resulting class conflict sometimes involves vandalism and arson targeting the property of the gentrifiers.
During the dot-com boom of the late s, the gentrification of San Francisco's predominantly working class Mission District led some long-term neighborhood residents to create what they called the "Mission Yuppie Eradication Project". Their activities drew hostile responses from the San Francisco Police Departmentreal estate interests, and "work-within-the-system" housing activists.
They were formed in response to the housing crisis precipitated by large numbers of second homes being bought by the English which had increased house prices beyond the means of many locals. The group were responsible for setting fire to English -owned holiday homes in Wales from to the mids. Within the next ten years, some properties were damaged by the campaign.
In there was a movement that protested an influx of Swabians to Berlin who were deemed as gentrification drivers. Zoning ordinances and other urban planning tools can be used to recognize and support local business and industries.
This can include requiring developers to continue with a current commercial tenant or offering development incentives for keeping existing businesses, as well as creating and maintaining industrial zones. Designing zoning to allow new housing near to a commercial corridor but not on top of it increases foot traffic to local businesses without redeveloping them.
Businesses can become more stable by securing long-term commercial leases. Although developers may recognize value in responding to living patterns, extensive zoning policies often prevent affordable homes from being constructed within urban development. Due to urban density restrictions, rezoning for residential development within urban living areas is difficult, which forces the builder and the market into urban sprawl and propagates the energy inefficiencies that come with distance from urban centers.
In a recent example of restrictive urban zoning requirements, Arcadia Development Co. With limitations established in the interest of public welfare, a density restriction was applied solely to Arcadia Development Co.
Because land speculation tends to cause volatility in property values, removing real estate houses, buildings, land from the open market freezes property values, and thereby prevents the economic eviction of the community's poorer residents.
The most common, formal legal mechanism for such stability in English speaking countries is the community land trust ; moreover, many inclusionary zoning ordinances formally place the "inclusionary" housing units in a land trust.
German municipalities and other cooperative actors have and maintain strong roles on the real estate markets in their realm. In jurisdictions where local or national government has these powers, there may be rent control regulations.
Rent control restricts the rent that can be charged, so that incumbent tenants are not forced out by rising rents. If applicable to private landlords, it is a disincentive to speculating with property values, reduces the incidence of dwellings left empty, and limits availability of housing for new residents. If the law does not restrict the rent charged for dwellings that come onto the rental market formerly owner-occupied or new buildrents in an area can still increase.
The cities of southwestern Santa Monica and eastern West Hollywood in CaliforniaUnited States gentrified despite—or perhaps, because of—rent control. Occasionally, a housing black market develops, wherein landlords withdraw houses and apartments from the market, making them available only upon payment of additional key moneyfees, or bribes—thus undermining the rent control law.
Many such laws allow "vacancy decontrol", releasing a dwelling from rent control upon the tenant's leaving—resulting in steady losses of rent-controlled housing, ultimately rendering rent control laws ineffective in communities with a high rate of resident turnover. In other cases social housing owned by local authorities may be sold to tenants and then sold on. Vacancy decontrol encourages landlords to find ways of shortening their residents' tenure, most aggressively through landlord harassment.
To strengthen the rent control laws of New York Cityhousing advocates active in rent control in New York are attempting to repeal the vacancy decontrol clauses of rent control laws. The state of Massachusetts abolished rent control in ; afterwards, rents rose, accelerating the pace of Boston 's gentrification; however, the laws protected few apartments, and confounding factors, such as a strong economy, had already been raising housing and rental prices. Gentrification is not a new phenomenon in Britain; in ancient Rome the shop-free forum was developed during the Roman Republican period, and in 2nd- and 3rd-century cities in Roman Britain there is evidence of small shops being replaced by large villas.
In the post war era, upwardly mobile social classes tended to leave the city. King's College London academic Loretta Lees reported that much of Inner London was undergoing "super-gentrification", where "a new group of super-wealthy professionals, working in the City of London [i. Super-gentrification is quite different from the classical version of gentrification.
It's of a higher economic order; you need a much higher salary and bonuses to live in Barnsbury " some two miles north of central London. Barnsbury was built aroundas a middle-class neighbourhood, but after the Second World War —many people moved to the suburbs. The upper and middle classes were fleeing from the working class residents of London; the modern railway allowed it. At the war's end, the great housing demand rendered Barnsbury a place of cheap housing, where most people shared accommodation.
In the late s and early s, people moving into the area had to finance house renovations with their money, because banks rarely financed loans for Barnsbury. As a result, the principal population influx occurred between and ; the UK Census reports that "between the years of andowner-occupation increased from 7 to 19 per cent, furnished rentals declined from 14 to 7 per cent, and unfurnished rentals declined from 61 to 6 per cent";  another example of urban gentrification is the super-gentrification, in the s, of the neighboring working-class London Borough of Islingtonwhere Prime Minister Tony Blair lived until his election in By the end of the s, conversions were the single largest source of new dwellings in London.
Gentrification of Mexico City Mexico City has been an iconic example of an extensive metropolitan area since the 14th century when it became the largest city in the American continent. Its continuous population growth and concentration of economic and political power boomed in the s when the country's involvement with global markets benefited the national financial industry. Currently the fifth largest city in the world, with a population of 21 million inhabitants The division of the city is derived from a strong socially and economically segregated population connected by its interdependence, that manifests into spatial arrangements where luxury areas coexist alongside slums.
In recent years, a massive reconstruction and redesign of zones, motivated by both State and private investments, has created exciting areas of historic importance, entertainment opportunities and high quality residentials. Thus, these developments have not only led to an increase of population, traffic and pollution due to inefficient urban planning, but have also pushed great amounts of low-income families to the edges of the city and have challenged the safety of the The geology of the city, located in a mountain valley, further contributes to unhealthy living conditions, concentrating high levels of air pollution.
The reality currently faced by the city is that of a historic rapid urban growth that has been unable to be adequately controlled and planned for, because of a corrupted and economically driven government, as well as a complex society that is strongly segregated. The negative effects of gentrification in Mexico City have been overlooked by the authorities, regarded as an inevitable process and argued to be in some cases nonexistent.
By the s, investors in Toronto started buying up city houses—turning them into temporary rooming houses to make rental income until the desired price in the housing market for selling off the properties was reached so that the rooming houses could be replaced with high income-oriented new housing —a gentrification process called "blockbusting.
As of [update]gentrification in Canada has proceeded quickly in older and denser cities such as MontrealTorontoOttawaHamilton and Vancouverbut has barely begun in places such as Calgary, Edmonton, or Winnipeg, where suburban expansion is still the primary type of growth. Canada's unique history and official multiculturalism policy has resulted in a different strain of gentrification than that of the United States.
Some gentrification in Toronto has been sparked by the efforts of business improvement associations to market the ethnic communities in which they operate, such as in Corso Italia and Greektown. In Quebec Citythe Saint Roch neighbourhood in the city's lower town was previously predominantly working class and had gone through a period of decline.
However, since the early to mid s, the area has seen the derelict buildings turned into condos and the opening of bars, restaurants and cafes, attracting young professionals into the area, but kicking out the residents from many generations back. Several software developers and gaming companies, such as Ubisoft and Beenox have also opened offices there.
In Paris, most poor neighborhoods in the east have seen rising prices and the arrival of many wealthy residents. However, the process is mitigated by social housing and most cities tend to favor a "social mix"; that is, having both low and high-income residents in the same neighborhoods.
But in practice, social housing does not cater to the poorest segment of the population; most residents of social dwellings are from the low-end of the middle class. As a result, a lot of poor people have been forced to go first to the close suburbs to and then more and more to remote "periurban areas" where public transport is almost nonexistent. A lot of high-profile companies offering well-paid jobs have moved near Saint-Denis and new real-estate programs are underway to provide living areas Gentrification - Aghast (2) - Desolate Legacy (Vinyl) to the new jobs.
On the other side, the eviction of the poorest people to periurban areas since has been analyzed as the main cause for the rising political far-right national front. When the poor lived in the close suburbs, their problems were very visible to the wealthy population. But the periurban population and its problem is mainly "invisible" from recent [ when?
These people have labelled themselves "les invisibles". Many of them fled both rising costs in Paris and nearby suburbs with an insecure and ugly environment to live in small houses in the countryside but close to the city.
But they did not factor in the huge financial and human cost of having up to four hours of transportation every day. Since then, a lot has been invested in the close suburbs with new public transports set to open and urban renewal programs they fled, but almost nobody cares of these "invisible" plots of land.
Since the close suburbs are now mostly inhabited by immigrants, these people have a strong resentment against immigration: They feel everything is done for new immigrants but nothing for the native French population. These communities have been disrupted by the arrival of new people and already suffered of high unemployment due to the dwindling numbers of industrial jobs.
In smaller cities, the suburbs are still the principal place where people live and the center is more and more akin to a commercial estate where a lot of commercial activities take place but where few people live. Gentrification in South Africa has been categorized into two waves for two different periods of time, Gentrification - Aghast (2) - Desolate Legacy (Vinyl).
Visser and Kotze find that the first wave occurred in the s to the Post-Apartheid period, the second wave occurred during and after the s. One view which Atkinson uses is that gentrification is purely the reflection of middle-class values on to a working-class neighborhood. Furthermore, the authors note that the pre-conditions for gentrification where events like Gentrification - Aghast (2) - Desolate Legacy (Vinyl) Decentralization suburbanization of the service industry and Capital Flight disinvestment were occurring, which caused scholars to ignore the subject of gentrification due to the normality of the process.
Generally, Atkinson observes that when looking at scholarly discourse for the gentrification and rapid urbanization of South Africa, the main focus is not on the smaller towns of South Africa. This is a large issue because small towns are magnets for poorer people and repellants for skilled people.
Also as previously mentioned, Atkinson finds that this area has shown signs of gentrification. This is due to redevelopment which indicates clearly the reflection of middle-class values. Then, by surveying the recent newcomers to the area, Atkinson's research found that there is confidence for local economic growth which further indicated shifts to middle-class values, therefore, gentrification.
This gentrification of the area would then negative impact the poorer demographics where the increase in housing would displace and exclude them from receiving benefits. In conclusion, after studying the small town of Aberdeen, Atkinson finds that "Paradoxically, it is possible that gentrification could promote economic growth and employment while simultaneously increasing class inequality. Historically, Garside notes that due to the Apartheid, the inner cities of Cape Town was cleared of non-white communities.
But because of the Group Areas Actsome certain locations were controlled for such communities. Specifically, Woodstock has been a racially mixed community with a compilation of British settlersAfrikanersEastern European JewsPortuguese immigrants from Angola and Mozambiqueand the coloured Capetonians.
For generations, these groups lived in this area characterizing it be a working-class neighborhood. Then this progression continues to which Garside finds that an exaggeration as more middle-income groups moved into the area. This emigration resulted in a distinct split between Upper Woodstock and Lower Woodstock.
Coupled with the emergence of a strong middle-class in South Africa, Woodstock became a destination for convenience and growth. While Upper Woodstock was a predominantly white area, Lower Woodstock then received the attention of the mixed middle-income community. This increase in demand for housing gave landlords incentives to raise prices to profit off of the growing wealth in the area.
It has traditionally been occupied by members of South Africa's minority, mainly Muslim, Cape Malay community. These descendants of artisans and political captives, brought to the Cape as early as the 18th century as slaves and indentured workers, were housed in small barrack-like abodes on what used to be the outskirts of town.
As the city limits increased, property in the Bo-Kaap became very sought after, not only for its location but also for its picturesque cobble-streets and narrow avenues.
Increasingly, this close-knit community is "facing a slow dissolution of its distinctive character as wealthy outsiders move into the suburb to snap up homes in the City Bowl at cut-rate prices". In another specific case, Millstein and Teppo discovered that working-class residents would become embattled with their landlords. On Gympie Street, which has been labeled as the most dangerous street in Cape Town, it was home to many of the working-class. But as gentrification occurred, landlords brought along tactics to evict low-paying tenants through non-payment clauses.
One landlord who bought a building cheaply from an auction, immediately raised the rental price which would then proceed to court for evictions. But, the tenants were able to group together to make a strong case to win. Regardless of the outcome, the landlord resorted to turning off both power and water in the building.
The tenants then were exhausted out of motivation to fight. One tenant described it as similar to living in a shack which would be the future living space one displaced. To put it succinctly, the authors state, "The end results are the same in both cases: in the aftermath of the South African negotiated revolution, the elite colonize the urban areas from those who are less privileged, claiming the city for themselves. In Italysimilarly to other countries around the world, the phenomenon of gentrification is proceeding in the largest cities, such as MilanTurinGenoa and Rome.
In Milan, gentrification is changing the look of some semi-central neighborhoods, just outside the inner ring road called " Cerchia dei Bastioni "particularly of former working class and industrial areas. One of the most well known cases is the neighborhood of Isola. Despite its position, this area has been for a long time considered as a suburb since it has been an isolated part of the city, due to the physical barriers such as the railways and the Naviglio Martesana.
In the s, a new business district was built not far from this area, but Isola remained a distant and low-class area. In the s vigorous efforts to make Isola as a symbolic place of the Milan of the future were carried out and, with this aim, the Porta Garibaldi-Isola districts became attractors for stylists and artists.
Another semi-central district that has undergone this phenomenon in Milan is Zona Tortona. Former industrial area situated behind Porta Genova stationZona Tortona is nowadays the Mecca of Italian design and annually hosts some of the most important events of the Milan Design Week during which more than expositors, such as Superstudiotake part.
Going towards the outskirts of the city, other gentrified areas of Milan are Lambrate-Ventura where others events of the Milan Design Week are hosted Bicocca and Bovisa in which universities have contributed to the gentrification of the areasSesto San GiovanniVia Sammartini, and the so-called NoLo district which means "Nord di Loreto". The reason of this is both de-industrialisation and poor condition of residential areas.
Moreover, vast majority of industrial and housing facilities had been constructed in the late 19th century and the renovation was neglected after WWII. Nowadays the Polish government has started National Revitalization Plan  which ensures financial support to municipal gentrification programs.
Central Moscow rapidly gentrified following the change from the Communist central-planning policies of the Soviet era to the market economy and pro-development policies of the post-Soviet Russian government.
From a market standpoint, there are two main requirements that are met by the U. These are: an excess supply of deteriorated housing in central areas, as well as a considerable growth in the availability of professional jobs located in central business districts.
These conditions have been met in the U. There have been three chronological waves of gentrification in the U. The first wave came in the s and early s, led by governments trying to reduce the disinvestment that was taking place in inner-city urban areas. However, the market forces that are dictated by an excess supply cannot fully explain the geographical specificity of gentrification in the U. The missing link is another factor that can be explained by particular, necessary demand forces.
The s brought the more "widespread" second wave of gentrification, and was sometimes linked to the development of artist communities like SoHo in New York City. In the U. The post- World War II economy experienced a service revolution, which created white-collar jobs and larger opportunities for women in the work force, as well as an expansion in the importance of centralized administrative and cooperate activities.
This increased the demand for inner city residences, which were readily available cheaply after much of the movement towards central city abandonment of the s. The coupling of these movements is what became the trigger for the expansive gentrification of U.
Louisand Washington, D. The third wave of gentrification occurred in most major cities in the late s and was driven by large-scale developments, public-private partnerships, and government policies.
Gentrification in Atlanta has been taking place in its inner-city neighborhoods since the s. Many of Atlanta's neighborhoods experienced the urban flight that affected other major American cities in the 20th century, causing the decline of once upper and upper-middle-class east side neighborhoods.
In the s, after neighborhood opposition blocked two freeways from being built through the east side, its neighborhoods such as Inman Park and Virginia-Highland became the starting point for the city's gentrification wave, first becoming affordable neighborhoods attracting young people, and by having become relatively affluent areas attracting people from across Metro Atlanta to their upscale shops and restaurants. In the s and s, gentrification expanded into other parts of Atlanta, spreading throughout the historic streetcar suburbs east of Downtown and Midtown, mostly areas that had long had black majorities such as the Old Fourth WardKirkwoodReynoldstown and Edgewood.
On the western side of the city, once-industrial West Midtown became a vibrant neighborhood full of residential lofts and a nexus of the arts, restaurants, and home furnishings.
Gentrification by young African Americans was also taking place in the s in southwest Atlanta neighborhoods. Concerns about displacement of existing working-class black residents by increasing numbers of more affluent whites moving in are expressed by author Nathan McCall in his novel Them in The Atlanta Progressive News and in the documentary The Atlanta Way.
The city of Boston has seen several neighborhoods undergo significant periods of urban renewal, specifically during the s to the s. Called "turbo-gentrification" by sociologist Alan Wolfe, particular areas of study of the process have been done in South End, Bay Village, and West Cambridge.
In Boston's North Endthe removal of the noisy Central Artery elevated highway attracted younger, more affluent new residents, in place of the traditional Italian immigrant culture. In the early s, Boston's South End had a great many characteristics of a neighborhood that is prime for gentrification. The available housing was architecturally sound and unique row houses in a location with high accessibility to urban transport services, while surrounded by small squares and parks.
A majority of the area had also been designated a National Historic District. The South End became deteriorated by the s. Many of the row houses had been converted to cheap apartments, and the neighborhood was plagued by dominant, visible poverty. The majority of the residents were working-class individuals and families with a significant need for public housing and other social services.
The situation was recognized by local governments as unfavorable, and in became the target of an urban renewal effort of the city. The construction of the Prudential Tower complex that was finished in along the northwest border of South End was a spark for this urban-renewal effort and the gentrification process for the area that surrounded it. The complex increased job availability in the area, and the cheap housing stock of South End began to attract a new wave of residents.
Unfortunately, tension characterized the relationship between these new residents and the previous residents of the neighborhood. Clashes in the vision for the area's future was the main source of conflict. The previous, poorer residents, contended that "renewal" should focus on bettering the plight of South End's poor, while new, middle-class residents heavily favored private market investment opportunities and shunned efforts such as subsidized housing with the belief that they would flood the market and raise personal security concerns.
The late s was a transition for the area from primarily families with children as residents to a population dominated by both retired residents and transient renters. The 2—3 story brick row houses were largely converted to low-cost lodging houses, and the neighborhood came to be described as "blighted" and "down at heel". This deterioration was largely blamed on the transient population.
The year began the upgrading of what was to become Bay Villageand these changes were mainly attributed to new artists and gay men moving to the area. These "marginal" gentrifiers made significant efforts towards superficial beautification as well as rehabilitation of their new homes, setting the stage for realtors to promote the rising value of the area.
The majority of them were highly educated and moving from a previous residence in the city, suggesting ties to an urban-based educational institution. The reasons new homebuyers gave for their choice of residence in Bay Village was largely attributed to its proximity to downtown, as well as an appreciation for city life over that of suburbia Pattison The development and gentrification of West Cambridge began in as the resident population began to shift away from the traditional majority of working class Irish immigrants.
The period of — had large shifts in homebuyer demographics comparable to that experienced by Bay Village. Residents reported a visible lack of social ties between new homebuyers and the original residents. However, displacement was not cited as a problem because the primary reason of housing sale remained the death of the sole-surviving member of the household or the death of a spouse. Researcher Timothy Pattison divided the gentrification process of West Cambridge into two main stages.
Stage one began with various architects and architectural students who were attracted to the affordability of the neighborhood. The renovations efforts these "marginal" gentrifiers undertook seemed to spark a new interest in the area, perhaps as word of the cheap land spread to the wider student community.
The Peabody Schools also served as an enticing factor for the new gentrifiers for both stages of new homebuyers. Stage two of the process brought more architects to the area as well as non-architect professionals, often employed at a university institution.
The buyers in stage two cited Peabody schools and the socioeconomic mix of the neighborhood as primary reasons for their residential choice, as well as a desire to avoid job commutes and a disenchantment with the suburban life.
Chicago 's gentrification rate was reported to be Gentrification Amid Urban Decline: Strategies for America's Older Citiesby Michael Lang, reports the process and impact social, economic, cultural of gentrification. That part of Darien Street was a "back street", because it does not connect to any of the city's main arteries and was unpaved for most of its existence.
In its early days, this area of Darien Street housed only Italian families; however, after the Second World War —when the municipal government spoke of building a cross-town highway, the families moved out.
Most of the houses date from built for the artisans and craftsmen who worked and lived in the areabut, when the Italian Americans moved out, the community's low-rent houses went to poor African American families. Moreover, by the early s, blighted Darien Street was at its lowest point as a community, because the houses held little property valuemany were abandoned, having broken heaters and collapsed roofs, et cetera.
Despite the decay, Darien Street remained charmed with European echoes, each house was architecturally different, contributing to the street's community character; children were safe, there was no car traffic. The closeness of the houses generated a closely knit community located just to the south of Center Cityan inexpensive residential neighborhood a short distance from the city-life amenities of Philadelphia; the city government did not hesitate to rehabilitate it.
The gentrification began in ; the first house rehabilitated was a corner property that a school teacher re-modeled and occupied. The next years featured mostly white middle-class men moving into the abandoned houses; the first displacement of original Darien Street residents occurred in Two years later, five of seven families had been economically evicted with inflated housing prices; the two remaining families were renters, expecting eventual displacement.
In five years, from tothe gentrification of Darien Street reduced the original population from seven black households and one white household, to two black households and eleven white households. Of the five black households displaced, three found better houses within two blocks of their original residence, one family left Pennsylvania, and one family moved into a public housing apartment building five blocks from Darien Street.
The principal detriment was residential displacement via higher priced housing. Gentrification in Washington, D. The process in the U Street Corridor and other downtown areas has recently become a major issue, and the resulting changes have led to African-Americans dropping from a majority to a minority of the population, as they move out and middle-class whites and Asians have moved in. Washington is one of the top three cities with the most pronounced capital flow into its "core" neighborhoods, a measurement that has been used to detect areas experiencing gentrification.
Researcher Franklin James found that, of these core areas, Capitol Hill was significantly revitalized during the decade of —, and by the end of the decade this revitalization had extended outward in a ring around this core area. The gentrification during this time period resulted in a significant problem of displacement for marginalized city residents in the s.
As a result of gentrification, however, Washington's safety has improved drastically. Prince George's County saw a huge spark of violent crimes in andbut the rate has decreased since then. A major driver of gentrification in Bay Area cities such as San Francisco has been attributed with the Dot-Com Boom in the s, creating a strong demand for skilled tech workers from local startups and nearby Silicon Valley businesses leading to rising standards of living. From to18, African Americans left San Francisco, while the White, Asian, and Hispanic populations saw growth in the city.
The people who left the city were more likely to be nonwhite, have lower education levels, and have lower incomes than their counterparts who moved into the city. In addition, there was a net annual migration of 7, people age 35 or under, and net out migration of over 5, for people 36 or over. The rich moving in and the poor moving out? Hard as it is to believe, however, New York and other cities in the American Northeast are beginning to enjoy a revival as they undergo a gradual process known by the curious name of 'gentrification' term coined by the displaced English poor and subsequently adopted by urban experts to describe the movements of social classes in and around London.
New York City is a common example of gentrification, especially when it comes to discussions about rising rents and low-income residents moving out. InLance Freeman and Frank Braconi of Columbia University found that low-income residents are actually less likely to move out of a neighborhood that had the "typical hallmarks" of gentrification than one that did not.
Because of how widespread the disease was, many homes and apartments were left unoccupied after the tenants died, leaving room for gentrification to occur. Gentrification in Detroit differs from most cities in that relatively few residents have been physically displaced, as large amounts of vacant land and housing are available for development.
For example, as of23 percent of Detroit's housing units were vacant,  and this figure does not include the copious amounts of vacant land in the city on which new housing units could be built. Some scholars, such as john a.
While physical displacement is minimal, the cultural displacement in Detroit is immense. This displacement falls largely upon the shoulders of the low-income African American community to shoulder.
Residents who have lived in Detroit for decades have built a strong sense of community, belonging, and historical connection to the city. When individuals are displaced, they not only lose their home, but also their sense of belonging. Those that are left behind also experience drastic and harrowing changes to their neighborhood. Like gentrification in many other American cities, gentrification in Detroit is racially correlated.
As average wages in the Greater Downtown area grew from to the percentage of the white population in that area increased, while the percentage of the black population fell.
After World War II and its subsequent economic boom, economic inequality became commonplace. African Americans were often the ones to bear the brunt of this inequality. In effect, the black community, already limited by unjust economic policies, were forced to stay in impoverished and segregated neighborhoods.
Continued segregation and limitations to economic change for the African American community meant that they remained at the mercy of the white powers, even to this day. The majority black population that was left in Detroit were forced to live with the subsequent problems that followed mass decreases in the city's population.
This movement has members and 95 building communities. News of these protests reached England, Scotland, France and Spain.
MJB made a call to action that everyone, internationally, should fight against gentrification. This movement gained international traction and also became known as the International Campaign Against Gentrification in El Barrio. On 26 Septembera cereal cafe in East London called Cereal Killer Cafe was attacked by a large group of anti-gentrification protestors. These protestors carried with them a pig's head and torches, stating that they were tired of unaffordable luxury flats going into their neighborhoods.
These protestors were alleged to be primarily "middle-class academics," who were upset by the lack of community and culture that they once saw in East London. After the attack on the cafe, users on Twitter were upset that protestors had targeted a small business as the focus of their demonstration, as opposed to a larger one.
The San Francisco tech bus protests occurred in late in the San Francisco Bay Area in the United States, protesting against tech shuttle buses that take employees to and from their homes in the Bay Area to workplaces in Silicon Valley.
Protestors said the buses were symbolic of the gentrification occurring in the city, rising rent prices, and the displacement of small businesses. This protest gained global attention and also inspired anti-gentrification movements in East London.
On 22 Novemberink! Coffee, a small coffee shop, placed a manufactured metal Sandwich board sign on the sidewalk outside one of their Denver locations in the historic Five Points, Denver neighborhood. Ink's ad ignited outrage and garnered national attention when a picture of the sign was shared on social media by a prominent Denver writer, Ru Johnson. The picture of the sign quickly went viral accumulating critical comments and negative reviews.
Ink's public apology deemed the sign a bad joke causing even more outrage on social media. The advertising firm responded to the public's dismay by issuing an ill-received social media apology, "An Open Letter to Our Neighbors". The night following the debut of ink's controversial ad campaign their Five Points, Denver location was vandalized.
Protest organizers gathered at the coffee shop daily following the controversy. The coffee shop was closed for business the entire holiday weekend following the scandal.
At least people attended a protest and boycott event on 25 November outside of ink! On 3 Marchan anarchist group vandalized coffee shops, luxury automobiles, and restaurants on Locke Street in Hamilton, Ontario. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gentrifying. Urban socioeconomic process. See also: Community displacement. Further information: Gentrification of Vancouver.
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Main article: Gentrification of Atlanta. Main article: Gentrification of Chicago. Further information: Gentrification in Philadelphia. Further information: Gentrification of San Francisco. Texas Observer. Retrieved 21 June The Plan.
Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved 24 March As such it means different things, under different circumstances, to different people. This chaos results from the different manifestations of gentrification and its different ways of impacting people in its wake.
Trade, traders, and the ancient city. London: Routledge. The Oxford Dictionary of Etymology. Harper, Douglas Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2 January London: aspects of change. Mythos Kreuzberg: Ethnographie eines Stadtteils — in German. Archived from the original on 13 December Campus Verlag.
Spiegel Online in German. Retrieved 2 April Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia. Governing Magazine. Retrieved 25 September The Rise of the Creative Class: and how it's transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life. New York: Basic Books. Transportation Quarterly.
Resisting Gentrification in Oakland, California". Urbani Izziv. Minnesota Public Radio.
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